陽光澎湖 美麗海灣

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2017 / 6月

文‧劉嫈楓 圖‧林格立 翻譯‧Phil Newell


「晚風輕拂澎湖灣,白浪逐沙灘,沒有椰林綴斜陽,只是一片海藍藍…,」這是不少遊客踏上澎湖必唱的經典歌曲《外婆的澎湖灣》,如歌詞所寫,那湛藍的海洋、陽光的沙灘、燦爛繽紛的花火節,每年都吸引了數十萬人踏上這座小島。

不甘這片美麗的景致只有台灣民眾獨享,近年來,澎湖積極在國內外推動海洋觀光,不但成功加入世界最美麗海灣組織,明(2018)年更將迎來年會主辦權,藉此向全世界行銷澎湖。


 

澎湖縣長招待室,一幅才新掛上的地圖,上頭列出「世界最美麗海灣組織」四十多個地區與25個國家,「比起其他國家,白色沙灘、獨特的玄武岩地質風貌……,澎湖有不輸其他國家的海灣景色。」澎湖縣縣長陳光復指著地圖上的家鄉,自豪地說。

白沙灘、玄武岩景觀,世界之最

全世界擁有6種玄武岩地質,澎湖就包辦了其中5種。澎湖99個島嶼中,除了最東邊的花嶼屬安山岩之外,全是火山玄武岩地質。

澎湖玄武岩地形,是熾熱的岩漿,隨著時間、環境不同冷卻而形成的獨特景觀,並出現節理、褶皺、斷層等造型。例如,深受遊客喜愛的大果葉柱狀玄武岩,六角柱狀岩石稜角分明;而位於小門島的鯨魚洞玄武岩海崖,是經過海蝕作用不斷侵蝕,最後貫穿而成的海蝕門;員貝嶼玄武岩景觀,呈現放射狀的玄武岩節理,則有如一條百褶裙。

除了獨特的玄武岩地景,澎湖全縣500口散布於周遭海域的石滬,更充滿先民獨特的漁獵智慧。

停留於七美石滬,不少人誤以為海上雙心造型,是近年來澎湖為了推動海洋觀光,特意打造出的人工景觀,然其歷史已超過三百年的石滬,是早年澎湖漁民發揮巧思,於淺水海域利用潮汐落差,就地取材利用咾咕石、玄武岩等石材堆疊成圓圈狀,所創造出的捕魚技法。

然而多年後,漁獵古法為人淡忘,留下的石滬景觀,部分也隨時間毀損而消失,因此近來澎湖投入石滬的保存與修復,邀集熟悉傳統石滬堆砌工法的當地居民與工匠,成立「吉貝石滬保『滬』隊」。此前,不但獲文化部認證,也成功留下七美雙心石滬、吉貝石滬群的美景。

目前,澎湖一市五鄉均見得到石滬景觀,其中尤以位北端的白沙鄉最多。據調查,吉貝島於清朝時即有大滬1口、小滬4口,至1950年代吉貝人先後已修造超過百口石滬,因而有著「石滬故鄉」之名。

迎接世界最美麗海灣組織年會

桶盤嶼、二崁聚落、奎壁山獨特的「摩西分海」……,澎湖人文美景風光處處,為了鼓勵遊客深度旅遊,澎湖更打算推動跳島旅行。陳光復表示,澎湖99座島嶼,各具特色,深具潛力發展跳島旅行。因此,已邁入第15年的澎湖花火節,今年首度走出本島馬公,前往七美、望安等五鄉舉辦。

發展海洋觀光之外,澎湖打算發展遊艇休憩產業。受海洋資源枯竭、漁民年事已高,原有68個漁港、軍港都面臨轉型。因此澎湖決定藉著美麗的海灣景致,將現有閒置港口轉型為遊艇港。

因此,今年6月,馬公市即有一處漁港,將改為遊艇港口,預計將可停泊55艘遊艇,而未來也將在七美、望安、西嶼、白沙闢建遊艇港口。

未來,遊客可以駕駛遊艇來到澎湖,停留於不同離島,欣賞眾島嶼景色,夜裡就停泊在海灣,觀賞星星。「這和住在飯店、民宿,有著截然不同的體驗;就好像民眾野外露營,體驗山林原野,而遊艇如同在海上露營,乘著海風,在夜裡,釣魚、聽著海浪的聲音,看看星空。」陳光復說。

即將於6月下旬展開的「遊艇生活節」,也將為澎湖的遊艇觀光揭開序幕,明年更將舉辦國際遊艇展。陳光復表示,去年國際遊艇展於高雄舉辦時,即創下4天40億產值,地點改換至澎湖,同樣前景可期。

而遊艇生活節的舉辦,不但促進澎湖發展遊艇休憩產業,也提前為2018年10月舉辦「世界最美麗海灣組織年會」暖身。

澎湖自然景觀獨特,擁有綿延的海岸沙灘,壯麗的玄武地貌,備受矚目。2010年澎湖就積極爭取加入世界最美麗海灣組織會員,耗時2年,在2012年年底成功入會,成為世界最美麗海灣組織會員。

澎湖與各國會員就海洋環境經營、海灣文化資產等議題加強交流。2016年年初,澎湖赴菲律賓參加年會時,更打敗勁敵西班牙巴塞隆納,獲得理事會一致通過,取得2018組織年會的主辦權。陳光復表示,爭取到2018年世界最美麗海灣組織年會的舉辦權,對澎湖、對台灣,都是莫大的鼓舞。

「生態保育、自然景觀,是澎湖贏得2018年世界最美麗海灣組織年會主辦權的主要原因。」陳光復表示,澎湖得天獨厚擁有海洋景致,卻鮮有機會向國際宣傳,年會的舉辦不僅能向世界行銷澎湖,也是將台灣推向國際的絕佳舞台。

今年起將開啟一連串的活動,為明年10月舉辦的年會暖身。除了國際遊艇節,澎湖也將舉辦國際美食展,鼓勵各國訪賓利用澎湖風茹、海鱺等在地食材,烹調出最具「澎湖味」的料理。此外,澎湖也將於年會舉辦時,隔海與高雄同步舉辦「世界港灣城市論壇」,邀請國際學者就相關議題,深入交換意見。

人文歷史,不輸海灣風光

而澎湖人文也絲毫不輸海灣風光。馬公市區以中央街為核心,向周邊延伸發展的「七街一市」,就是許多遊客最愛駐足的地方。

位於中央街街底,已改為民宿的中央旅社,是澎湖最早的旅社。外觀至今仍可見到木製的窗櫺,猶如龜殼,外牆採洗石工法,改建之前,屋宅裡頭還留有磨石子樓梯;二層樓高旅社外,主人姓氏的標誌,至今仍完好如初。再往街區探去,被列為國定一級古蹟的天后宮,是遊客必訪景點。除了天后宮,位於老街街區的施公廟、萬軍井、四眼洞,同樣是國定古蹟。

陳光復表示,澎湖的地質生成、人文歷史都早於台灣本島。許多人都僅知澎湖地貌生成的久遠歷史,卻不知荷蘭於台南安平建立起熱蘭遮王朝前,在台灣停留的首地,即是澎湖馬公風櫃尾,當時荷蘭人甚至在此建立堡壘。

而後在1624年,明朝派軍猛烈攻打,荷蘭人不敵後與明朝達成協議,決定撤往台灣本島,自行拆城將大批玄武岩運往台南安平,興建熱蘭遮城。因此,如今荷蘭佔領台灣留下的城牆遺址,部分的玄武岩,就是從澎湖而來。

4月底甫剛開放的國定古蹟馬公金龜頭炮臺文化園區(天南鎖鑰),同樣深富人文歷史特色。馬公金龜頭礮臺始建於1864年,2011年指定為國定古蹟,經過多年修復後於2017年1月完工,是澎湖極為重要的文化據點。園區開放後,將能與周遭觀音亭、篤行十村、天后宮、馬公港滬區、第一、二、三漁港、澎湖新灣區等景點相互串連。

此外,重新開放的「天南鎖鑰」還與國立故宮博物院合作,舉辦「同安‧潮,新媒體藝術展──澎湖遊」特展,以數位互動的藝術呈現方式,重新詮釋中國專屬木造帆船同安船歷史發展,並使用浮空投影、裸眼3D、擴增實境(AR)及Kinect體感互動裝置,讓觀眾感受19世紀東亞海洋文明的繁盛樣貌;而參觀民眾也可在澎湖戰役秘徑地下坑道內觀賞到澎湖4大戰役影片,體驗坑道內特殊的軍事生活。

陽光、海洋、沙灘,美麗的澎湖每年都吸引不少國內外旅客到來,去年到訪人數已突破100萬人,每逢旺季,前往澎湖的機票一票難求。不過,今年前往澎湖的交通運輸方式,又多了一項生力軍。繼嘉義布袋─澎湖馬公單向航行後,今年4月底,澎湖龍門─嘉義布袋港也同時啟航,完成兩地雙向航行。陳光復表示,澎湖─嘉義港口的雙向通行,已比預計需三、四年才能完成的期程提早許多。未來,航船時間只要短短不到一小時,即能抵達。

關注觀光之餘,澎湖也不忘發展其他產業。自2011年開始,澎湖就設下低碳島目標,發展綠能產業。陳光復表示,澎湖冬季東北季風強勁,是絕佳的風場,每年可提供3,800小時滿額發電。除了日照充足、風力強勁,澎湖的洋流未來也能用於發電。

而近來,澎湖也針對在地的農漁產,分別打出「澎湖優『鮮』」與「澎湖好『農』」地方品牌。陳光復表示,澎湖希望透過完整的生產履歷,將澎湖農漁產送往消費者手中。

「來到澎湖有新鮮的海產可吃、有說都說不完的景點可看。光是來一趟絕對不夠,澎湖絕對值得你一來再來!」這是澎湖大家長陳光復拍胸脯打包票的大聲保證!

英文

Penghu Rocks! Taiwan’s “Most Beautiful Bay” in the Limelight

Liu Yingfeng /photos courtesy of Jimmy Lin /tr. by Phil Newell

There’s a pop classic in Taiwan called “Grandma’s ­Penghu Bay.” The lyrics speak of the gentle even­ing breezes that waft over ­Penghu Bay, the white-capped breakers and sundrenched beaches, and of course the sea of blue, so blue. The ­Penghu Islands (also known as the Pescadores) attract tens of thousands of tourists annually, especially during the Ocean Fireworks Festival, and most can’t help but start singing “Grandma’s ­Penghu Bay” to themselves.

It would be a shame if the beautiful scenery of ­Penghu were to be enjoyed only by the people of Taiwan, which is why in recent years ­Penghu has been actively promoting marine tourism for visitors from home and abroad. Not only has ­Penghu joined the “Most Beautiful Bays in the World Club,” it will be the venue for the club’s 2018 annual meeting, providing a fabulous opportunity for marketing itself to the world.

 


 

Walk into the visitors’ room at the office of the Penghu County magistrate, and you will see on the wall a newly hung map showing the 40-plus member sites in 25 countries of the “Most Beautiful Bays in the World Club,” with iconic photos from each. Magistrate Chen ­Kuang-fu, ­Penghu born and bred, points to his home island on the map and says with pride: “With our pristine white sand and basalt geological formations, the scenery in ­Penghu is second to none of any ‘beautiful bay’ anywhere in the world.”

Wonderfully weir’d

There are six types of basalt formations in the world, and five of these occur in ­Penghu. Of the 99 islands and islets that make up the archipelago, all but one are composed of volcanic basalt. The one exception is Huayu, the easternmost, which is formed from andesite.

Penghu’s basalt configurations originated when volcanic magma cooled at different times and under different conditions, producing variations that include columns, folds, and faults. For example, the Da­guoye Columnar Basalt—perhaps the most popular sight on the islands—comprises a series of hexagonal basalt towers, with sharply defined corners and edges. Then there’s ­Jingyu (Whale) Cave, located on Xiao­men Islet, where relentless erosion by the ocean has cut out a “sea arch.” Over on Yuan­bei Islet, meanwhile, the basalt appears as radiating columns, looking for all the world like a pleated skirt.

Besides the plethora of interesting basalt vistas, ­Penghu also boasts more than 500 stone “fish weirs”—tidal fish traps—scattered in the waters on the edges of the islands, revealing the ingenuity of ­Penghu’s early residents in catching fish.

The most famous of these weirs is the “Twin-Heart Stone Fish Trap” in Qi­mei, so called because it looks like two intertwined hearts. Some visitors mistakenly assume that the twin hearts were constructed by the county government as part of its coastal works to improve the islands’ appeal for marine tourism, but in fact these weirs date back 300 years. Fishermen came up with the brilliant idea of using coral stone, basalt, or other materials to build round pond-like structures in shallow water that would flood at high tide and then, when the tide went out to below the level of the stone walls, trap fish inside them.

But over time people stopped using this fishing method, and many of the weirs collapsed and disappeared. Given the traps’ wonderful scenic value, in recent years the county government has been investing in their preservation and renovation, for which they hired a team of local residents and craftsmen familiar with traditional weir-building techniques. The team has successfully preserved many of these beautiful structures, including the “Twin Hearts” and Ji­bei fish traps.

Bay watch: The MBBWC

Tongpan Islet, Er­kan Village, the “Moses Parting the Sea” sandbar at Kui­bi­shan… there are interesting sights everywhere you go in ­Penghu. To encourage travelers to explore more fully all that the islands have to offer, ­Penghu plans to promote more “island-hopping” tours. Chen ­Kuang-fu explains that each of ­Penghu’s 99 isles has its own unique features, so there is great potential for island-hopping itineraries. As part of this effort, this year for the first time the “Ocean Fireworks Festival” will expand beyond the county seat of Ma­gong, with events being held in all five other townships, including Qi­mei and ­Wang’an.

Besides continuing to expand land-based tourism, ­Penghu also plans to develop recreational boating. ­Penghu has 68 harbors (mostly fishing harbors but also a few military ones) that have been largely left idle by the depletion of coastal fish stocks and the lack of young people who want to work in fishing. Taking advantage of ­Penghu Bay’s terrific scenery, the county government has decided to transform some of these idle harbors into facilities for pleasure boating.

In June of this year, ­Penghu’s first yacht marina will open in Ma­gong City, with berths planned for up to 55 craft. In the future similar facilities will be opened in Qi­mei, ­Wang’an, Xiyu, and Bai­sha. People who sail to ­Penghu will have a variety of options of scenic offshore islands where they can dock.

At the end of June there will be an event entitled “2017 ­Penghu Yachting Life,” which will serve as the formal ribbon-cutting for recreational boating in ­Penghu, and plans are in the works for next year’s Taiwan International Boat Show to be held here. Chen ­Kuang-fu relates that when the boat expo was held in Kao­­hsiung last year, it generated business worth NT$4 billion in just four days. He has expectations that the results will be similar when the venue is shifted to ­Penghu.

These events will not only promote development of pleasure boating in ­Penghu, they will serve as warm-ups for the annual meeting of the “Most Beautiful Bays in the World Club,” to be held in October of 2018.

Penghu launched its bid to join the MBBWC in 2010, and after two years of dedicated effort, succeeded in entering the organization. Membership has allowed representatives from ­Penghu to meet regularly with experts from other countries to exchange views on managing the marine environment and preserving seaside cultural assets.

In early 2016, at the annual MBBWC meeting in the Philippines, ­Penghu beat out Barcelona to win the right to host the 2018 annual meeting. Chen ­Kuang-fu finds this extremely encouraging not only for ­Penghu, but for Taiwan as a whole.

“Our biggest strong points were ecological conservation and natural scenery,” explains Chen. Despite the archipelago’s unique marine panoramas, ­Penghu has had few opportunities to advertise itself to the world. The 2018 MBBWC meeting will be a prime occasion for ­Penghu—and indeed for all of Taiwan—to strut its stuff on an international stage.

In addition to the activities related to pleasure boating, the events that will serve as preludes to the MBBWC meeting will also include an international food festival. Chefs from around the world will be invited to utilize down-home signature ­Penghu ingredients such as cobbler’s tack (Glossocardia bidens), a medicinal herb, and the cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum) to produce dishes that have that authentic “­Penghu zing.” On top of all that, concurrently with the MBBWC conclave, Kao­­hsiung will host a meeting of the Global Harbor Cities Forum, inviting scholars from many lands to discuss issues of importance to port cities.

Culture and history too!

Penghu’s cultural and historical attractions are no less delightful than its natural ones. For many tourists, the best place in the whole county is the “Seven Streets” area that extends out around Zhong­yang Street in Ma­gong City.

Chen ­Kuang-fu notes that ­Penghu not only predates Taiwan proper geologically, but its history also boasts a number of “firsts.” For example, not many people know that before the Dutch built Fort Zeelandia in Tai­nan, they landed in ­Penghu and built a fortress at Feng­gui­wei in Ma­gong.

In 1624 the Ming Dynasty responded by sending forces to dislodge the Dutch, who reached a negotiated settlement to withdraw to Taiwan. They dismantled their fort at Feng­gui­wei and shipped a great deal of the basalt to An­ping in Tai­nan to be used in the construction of Fort Zeelandia. This explains how colonial walls in Tai­nan came to be built of ­Penghu basalt!

Another spot rich in historical significance is Ma­gong’s Jin­gui­tou Fortress Cultural Park, which opened in April 2017. Constructed in 1864, this former artillery emplacement was designated a national monument in 2011, and years of meticulous renovation work were completed in January 2017. It now is one of ­Penghu’s major historic sites.

For the future, plans are in the works to link together Jin­gui­tou and nearby sites of interest, including Guan­yin­ting Recreation Area, Du­xing Tenth Village, Tian­hou Temple, Ma­gong Port, and several local fishing harbors.

The sun, sea, sand, and style of ­Penghu attract many travelers from home and abroad, with total visits topping 1 million last year. At peak season, it is hard to even buy an air ticket. But this year there is a new option for getting to and from ­Penghu. Following the opening of a ferry-boat service from Bu­dai in ­Chiayi County to Ma­gong, a ferry line from Long­men in ­Penghu back to ­Chiayi went into operation in April of this year. Chen ­Kuang-fu points out that no one had expected Penghu‡­Chiayi round-trip services to be up and running for three or four years yet, so having them now is like a miracle! A one-way journey takes less than an hour, and there are seven sailings a day, with capacity of up to 300 passengers per journey. This should take some of the pressure off existing transport capacity.

It should be added that ­Penghu is more than just about tourism, and is working to develop other industries as well. Since 2011 ­Penghu has been cultivating the green energy industry, with the ultimate goal of becoming a low-carbon county. Magistrate Chen tells us that the winds are very strong during the winter monsoon season, making ­Penghu ideal for developing wind power, with generators able to run at full capacity for 3800 hours per year. There is also plenty of sunshine for solar power, and the future possibility to use the tides to generate wattage.

The county government has also been stepping up efforts to promote local fisheries and agriculture by creating ­Penghu brand names to differentiate their most outstanding products in the market. Chen says that they also intend to set up a traceability system to let consumers track the source of their purchases all the way back to the producers in ­Penghu, assuring quality and authenticity.

“If you come to ­Penghu you’ll find great seafood and so many scenic spots that it’s impossible to name them all. In fact, one visit isn’t enough—­­Penghu is worth visiting again and again!” Chen ­Kuang-fu strikes his chest as he speaks, signalling his assurance that you will feel the same way.

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